Valorización de residuos de aguacate mexicano: análisis bioquímico y desarrollo de ingredientes funcionales


Abstract: Avocado is a fruit of high importance for the Mexican economy because it annually generates more than 5 billion mexican pesos. The nutritional properties and health benefits that avocado brings have led to an increase in world interest in this fruit and consequently of Mexican exports of avocado and by-products. In turn, the amounts of avocado residues are increasingly and are creating various environmental problems due to their accumulation. The use of these wastes as a natural source of starch and bioactive compounds of high interest for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry is a feasible opportunity for the use of these wastes. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is a technology that allows obtaining high yields of extraction of natural compounds in short extraction times. Through statistical designs it was possible to optimize the MAE of starch from the avocado seed and the extraction of bioactive compounds from the peel and seed. It was possible to obtain a 49.5% yield of starch based on dry seed and characterize it, demonstrating certain structural modifications comparatively to native starch, which may be advantageous for applications of the food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industry. The bioactive extracts of avocado seeds and peels were optimized using aqueous mixtures of acetone and ethanol, demonstrating a high antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against food pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The extracts also demonstrated no metabolism inhibition or membrane damage at concentrations less than 2.5 mg/mL in Caco-2 cells, idealizing the concentration of application of the extracts. The HPLC-MS analysis allowed to identify the major compounds of bioactive extracts such as dimeric, trimeric and quaternary procyanidins A and B in different isomeric forms, phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin and perseitol which is a rare alcoholic sugar. As an application of the compounds obtained from avocado residues it was possible to create an edible bioactive film formulated with starch and the bioactive extracts obtained.

Thesis PhD Rafael Araujo