Abstract: Ultrasound energy is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for surface modification of materials. The main benefits of this technique are the decrease of processing time and the amount of energy used. In this work, graphene nanoplatelets were treated with organic acids under ultrasonic radiation of 350Wat different times (30 and 60 min) aiming to modify their surface with functional acid groups and to improve the adsorption of uremic toxins. The modified graphene nanoplatelets were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimum time for modification with organic acids was 30 min. The modified nanoplatelets were tested as adsorbent material for uremic toxins using the equilibrium isotherms where the adsorption isotherm of urea was adjusted for the Langmuir model. From the solution, 75% of uremic toxins were removed and absorbed by the modified nanoplatelets.
Keywords: ultrasonic radiation; graphene nanoplatelets; adsorption; uremic toxins