Alicia Guadalupe Talavera-Caro, María Alejandra Sánchez-Muñoz, Inty Omar Hernández-De Lira, Lilia Ernestina Montañez-Hernández, Ayerim Yedid Hernández-Almanza, Jésus Antonio Morlett-Chávez, María de las Mercedes Esparza-Perusquia & Nagamani Balagurusamy*
A. G. Talavera-Caro · M. A. Sánchez-Muñoz · I. O. H.-D. Lira · L. E. Montañez-Hernández · A. Y. Hernández-Almanza · N. Balagurusamy*, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Bioremediación, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Torreón, Mexico. *e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
J. A. Morlett-Chávez, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico
M. d. l. M. Esparza-Perusquia, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico
In: Valorisation of agro-industrial residues – Volume I: Biological approaches. (Series: Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future). (Eds.) Zainul Akmar Zakaria, Ramaraj Boopathy & Julian Rafael Dib. Springer Nature. Switzerland. pp. 81-110. (ISBN: 9783030391362)
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a cost-effective treatment for management of lignocellulosic substrates, viz., agricultural wastes and animal manures, which also aids in generation of methane as biofuel. Although the application of AD technology is increasing, one of the major limitations of the process is that the rate of fermentation is higher than the rate of methanogenesis, which significantly affects process stability and methane yield. Normally, the souring of digesters can be observed after 2–4 weeks after the initiation of the volatile fatty acids accumulation, which makes it difficult for early detection and consequently resulting in acidification of digesters. Of late, metagenomic approaches are gaining importance due to their ability to
reveal the microbial diversity and their dynamics in a relatively short time. However, their functional nature could not be clearly explained due to the lack of data on their activity. Recent advances in proteomic studies show its potential as a complementary technology to metagenomic studies for efficient management of digesters. Metaproteomic analyses aid in identifying a shift in metabolic paths and in metabolic networks under stress conditions. This provides insights on functionality, microbial interactions, and provides data on spatiotemporal variations and their dynamics of proteins crucial for efficient performance of the digester. Besides, this technique has led to identify novel phylotypes with novel functions among the microbial communities of the anaerobic digesters, which suggest the potential of proteomics in bioprospection of novel enzymes for industrial purposes. How proteomics along with metagenomics and transcriptomics data could aid in early detection of disturbances in the digesters helps in formulating recovery strategies as well as to increase the methane content of biogas will be discussed in this chapter.