Plant Phenolics as Pathogen-Carrier Immunogenicity Modulator Haptens.


Abstract: Background: Pathogens use multiple mechanisms to disrupt cell functioning in their host and allow pathogenesis. These mechanisms involve communication between the pathogen and the host cell through protein-protein interactions. Protein-protein interactions chains referred to as signal transduction pathways are the processes by which a chemical or physical signal transmits through a cell as series of molecular events so the pathogen simply needs to intercept these molecular pathways at few positions to induce pathogenesis such as pathogen viability, infection or hypersensitivity. The pathogen nodes of interception are not necessary the most immunogenic; so that, novel immunogenicity-improvement strategies need to be developed thought a chemical conjugation of the pathogen-carrier nodes to develop an efficient immune response in order to block pathogenesis. On the other hand, if pathogen-carriers are immunogens; toleration ought to be induced by this
conjugation avoiding hypersensitivity. Thus, this paper addresses the biological plausibility of plantphenolics as pathogen-carrier immunogenicity modulator haptens. Conclusion: The plant-phenolic compounds have in their structure functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, ester, or ether, capable of reacting with the amino or carbonyl groups of the amino acids of a pathogen-carrier to form conjugates. Besides, the varied carbon structures that these phenolic compounds have; it is possible to alter the pathogen-carrier related factors that determine the immunogenicity: 1) Structural complexity, 2) Molecular size, 3) Structural heterogeneity, 4) Accesibility to antigenic determinants or epitopes, 5) Optical configuration, 6) Physical state, or 7) Molecular rigidity.

2019, Plant Phenolics as Pathogen Carrier Immunogenicity Modulator Haptens