Abstract: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and depression are widespread pathologies throughout the world, with increasing growth. The diagnosis and treatment of both pathologies is affected by their silent presentation and by the lack of adherence to treatment. The molecular pathways involved in its pathogenesis seem to be associated with each other, not only due to the presence of comorbidity but also due to the common nutritional, inflammatory, and metabolic factors. Likewise, being chronic pathologies, the inflammatory component becomes a common phenomenon in these pathologies, where the circulating elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) has downstream action, both insulin receptor signaling pathways like neurotransmitters. A deeper understanding of these biomolecular processes can improve the correct diagnosis of two diseases
that occur in people with increasing frequency, and that do not distinguish socioeconomic status or age. Furthermore, the search for biomarkers that allow the identification of pathological stages and clinical differentiation will provide tools for the search for early and multidisciplinary therapeutic targets.