Long-Term Effects on Renal Function in Children and Adolescents Due to Environmental Exposure to Lead-Results from an 11-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

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Abstract
Context: Most studies associating low-level lead exposure and kidney function have been carried out in adults and only a few studies have examined this relation in healthy children, adolescents, or young adults. Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects on renal functions due to environmental lead exposure in a cohort of children and adolescents that are permanent inhabitants of the three most polluted residential developments by lead in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The biochemical markers of renal function, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as, blood lead levels, were measured in a cohort of 480 children and adolescents. According with the blood lead levels (BLLs), subjects were grouped in three exposure categories (Category I: < 25 µg/dL; Category II: > 25 – < 45 µg/dL and Category III: > 45 µg/dL). Results: The mean baseline, highest and last BLLs in the assessed population, was 15.5, 17.2 and 3.3 µg/dL, respectively. The average quantity of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid levels, and eGFR were similar between the exposure categories; however the frequency of abnormal l uric acid level was significantly higher in the two most exposed categories (p < 0.01). In the multivariate statistical model, the frequency of abnormal serum creatinine concentration was positively linked with uric acid, while the frequency of abnormal uric acid was negatively associated with years of work, and, finally, there was a negative correlation between the eGFR and creatinine  levels. No significant association was found between BLLs with the  biochemical markers of the kidney functions or with the eGFR. Conclusion: Our data indicated that there was not a relevant  relation between the BLLs with the biochemical markers of renal functions or with the eGFR in this cohort of healthy infants and juveniles environmentally exposed to lead.

2015 Long-Term Effects on Renal Function in Children and Adolescents Due to Environmental Exposure to Lead-Results from an 11-Year Prospective Cohort Study


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