Combined antiretroviral therapy has improved quality and life expectancy of people living with human immunodeﬁciency virus (HIV). However, this therapy increases oxidative stress (OS), which in turn causes alterations in lipid and carbon metabolism, kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The Klotho gene has been implicated in cardiovascular risk increase. Klotho protein expression at X level decreases the risk of heart disease. HIV-positive people usually present low plasma levels of Klotho; thus, contributing to some extent to an increase in cardiovascular risk for these types of patients, mostly by favoring atherosclerosis. Therefore, our aim is to provide an overview of the effect of OS on Klotho protein and its consequent cardiometabolic alterations in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy.