Few pharmacological and toxicological studies have been conducted to demonstrate the usefulness and safety of using the Jatropha dioica extract. The aim of this study was to update the state of the art on the chemical composition, pharmacology, and toxicology of the species J. dioica, to find new possible applications. A search of different databases was carried out on the internet, specifically in Science Direct, PubMed, EBSCO, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Springer Link, with the keyword being “Jatropha dioica”. Despite the limited results with regard to the plant toxicity, it was shown that the extract to use is innocuous. In addition, it was found that J. dioica could be employed as an antioxidant, antibiotic, antifungal, or antiviral agent. Although promising, more scientific research is needed to further validate the ethno pharmacological use of the J. dioica extracts.