High prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and lack of association with integrin α2 gene polymorphisms in patients with type 2 diabetes from Northeastern Mexico

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ANA CECILIA CEPEDA‑NIETO*1, MARÍA TERESA ESQUIVEL‑CONTRERAS2, FRANCISCO DURAN‑IÑIGUEZ1, MAURICIO ANDRÉS SALINAS‑SANTANDER1, HUGO LEONID GALLARDO‑BLANCO3, SANDRA CECILIA ESPARZA‑GONZÁLEZ1, ALEJANDRO ZUGASTI‑CRUZ2, JESÚS ANTONIO MORLETT‑CHÁVEZ2 and LUIS TLALOC CÓRDOVA‑ALVELAIS1

1 Research Department, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila 25000;
2 Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280;
3 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León 64460, Mexico.

*acepedanieto@yahoo.com

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the primary causes of blindness in the working age population and is characterized by angiogenesis in the retina. Platelets have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. The integrin receptor for collagen/laminin, α2β1, mediates platelet primary adhesion to subendothelial tissues, which is an essential first step in thrombus formation. The gene encoding the α2 subunit of α2β1 integrin has ≥8 polymorphisms, including a BglII/NdeI restriction fragment length polymorphism. To explore the prevalence of DR in a population from Northeastern Mexico, unrelated, hospitalized patients who had received a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) at least 10 years previously were recruited (n=177). DR was diagnosed in a masked manner by independent ophthalmologists using fundus images captured using a non‑mydriatic retinal camera. A total of 121 patients with DM2 (68%) had some degree of DR development (DR patients), and 56 patients with DM2 (32%) did not exhibit any sign of DR (No‑DR patients). The results showed that after 15 years of DM2 progression, there is an increased risk of DR (P=0.0497; odds ratio, 1.993). In addition, insulin therapy and family history of DM2 were significantly associated with DR. In order to detect a possible association between DR and BglII/NdeI α2 gene polymorphisms, a comparative cross‑sectional study between DR and No‑DR patients was conducted. The α2 gene was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction‑restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Statistical analysis revealed no association between BglII/NdeI genotypes and the development of DR in this group of patients. In conclusion, the present data indicate a high prevalence of DR in the Mexican population and suggest that the damage in DR is due to other factors, such as the duration of the DM2, and is not linked to BglII/NdeI α2 gene polymorphisms.

10 ART 2015

 


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