Marleny Garcia-Lozano1, Joshua Haynes1, Carlos Lopez-Ortiz1, Purushothaman Natarajan1, Yadira Peña-Garcia1, Padma Nimmakayala1 , John Stommel2, Suresh B. Alaparthi1, Cristian Sirbu3, Nagamani Balagurusamy4* and Umesh K. Reddy1*
1 Gus R. Douglass Institute and Department of Biology, West Virginia State University, Institute, WV 25112-1000, USA; firstname.lastname@example.org (M.G.-L.); email@example.com (J.H.); firstname.lastname@example.org (C.L.-O.); email@example.com (P.N.); firstname.lastname@example.org (Y.P.-G.); email@example.com (P.N.); firstname.lastname@example.org (S.B.A.)
2 USDA, ARS, Genetic Improvement of Fruits and Vegetables Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA; email@example.com
3 Charleston Area Medical Center Health Education and Research Institute, Center for Cancer Research, Charleston, WV 25304, USA; firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Laboratorio de Biorremediación, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila,Torreón, Coahuila 27000, Mexico
One of the greatest impacts on the gastrointestinal microbiome is diet because the host and microbiome share the same food source. In addition, the effect of diet can diverge depending on the host genotype. Diets supplemented with phytochemicals found in peppers might cause shifts in the microbiome. Thus, understanding how these interactions occur can reveal potential health implications associated with such changes. This study aims to explore the gut microbiome of different Drosophila genetic backgrounds and the effects of dietary pepper treatments on its composition and structure. We analyzed the gut microbiomes of three Drosophila melanogaster genetic backgrounds (Canton-S, Oregon-RC, and Berlin-K) reared on control and pepper-containing diets (bell, serrano, and habanero peppers). Results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the variability of Drosophila gut microbiome can be driven mainly by genetic factors. When the abundance of these communities is considered, pepper-containing diets also appear to have an effect. The most relevant change in microbial composition was the increment of Lactobacillaceae and Acetobacteraceae abundance in the pepper-containing diets in comparison with the controls in Oregon-RC and Berlin-K. Regression analysis demonstrated that this enhancement was associated with the content of phenolic compounds and carotenoids of the peppers utilized in this study; specifically, to the concentration of beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, myricetin, quercetin, and apigenin.