Carotenoids extraction from Rhodotorula glutinis cells using various techniques: A comparative study


Ayerim Hernández-Almanza1, Victor Navarro-Macías1, Oscar Aguilar2, Miguel A Aguilar-González3 & Cristóbal N Aguilar1*

1 Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Saltillo 25280, Coahuila, México
2 Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Ave Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, N.L., México, 64849
3 CINVESTAV-Saltillo, Saltillo 25000, Coahuila, México


Carotenoids are produced by many plants and microorganisms and they have immense application in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries due to their antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory potential. Microbial production of carotenoids is intracellular, therefore, the study of the most appropriate methodologies for cell disruption is necessary. Rhodotorula glutinis P4M422 was grown in YM broth, subsequently, microwave, ultrasonic waves, enzymatic lysis and bead mill techniques were evaluated for carotenoids extraction. Further, different cyclization inhibitors (imidazole, 2-isopropylimidazole and ketoconazole) were also evaluated in order to to control and direct the metabolism to avoid β-carotene accumulating lycopene. In this study, the highest carotenoids extractability was obtained under bead mill-assisted treatment. The bead mill method does not require use of toxic solvents such as DMSO, and therefore, the risk to health or environmental is reduced. Further, the highest lycopene concentration (18.61 mg/L) was obtained with 2-isopropylimidazole addition.