Allele frequency net 2015 update: new features for HLA epitopes, KIR and disease and HLA adverse drug reaction associations.


ABSTRACT: It has been 12 years since the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND; was first launched, providing the scientific community with an online repository for the storage of immune gene frequencies in different populations across the world. There have been a significant number of improvements from the first version, making AFND a primary resource for many clinical and scientific areas including histocompatibility, immunogenetics, pharmacogenetics and anthropology studies, among many others. The most widely used part of AFND stores population frequency data (alleles,
genes or haplotypes) related to human leukocyte antigens (HLA), killer-cell immunoglobulin-like
receptors (KIR), major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related genes (MIC) and a number of
cytokine gene polymorphisms. AFND now contains >1400 populations from more than 10 million healthy
individuals. Here, we report how the main features of AFND have been updated to include a new section
on ‘HLA epitope’ frequencies in populations, a new section capturing the results of studies identifying
HLA associations with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and one for the examination of infectious
and autoimmune diseases associated with KIR polymorphisms––thus extending AFND to serve a new user base in these growing areas of research. New criteria on data quality have also been included.

2014 Allele frequency net