ABSTRACT: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been extensively studied as an integrating component of endocrine functions in the pancreas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ATRA on physiopathological biomarkers in an experimental model of rat with type 1 diabetes induced by alloxan (T1D). Twenty Wistar rats were divided equally into ﬁve groups, each receiving a different treatment: a control group (CG), a diabetic group without T1D treatment, a diabetic group treated with ATRA, a diabetic group supplemented with vitamin E (VIT E), and a group that was given olive oil (V). The administration of ATRA for 17 days produced a signiﬁcant reduction in weight and glucose levels, compared to the T1D and VIT E groups. The evaluation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipoperoxidation showed no relevant difference among the groups. The results of the histological analysis showed similarities both in the size and in the number of islets of Langerhans in the pancreatic tissue obtained from the ATRA group and the CG. ATRA displayed a signiﬁcant reduction of glycemic values in diabetic rats. Ultrastruc- turally, ß-cells, acinar, and ductal cells restored their normal appearance. ATRA can contribute to the recovery of pancreatic damage due to alloxan induction. It seems that the antioxidant effect of ATRA is not responsible for the differences observed.