Héctor A. Ruiz*, Rosa M. Rodríguez-Jasso, Ayerim Hernandez-Almanza, Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel, Cristóbal N. Aguilar
FOOD RESEARCH DEPARTMENT, SCHOOL OF CHEMISTRY, AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY OF COAHUILA, SALTILLO, COAHUILA, MÉXICO
Nowadays, the bioprocesses based on the utilization of renewable raw materials probably make a major contribution to sustainable development. However, it is not enough just to develop more eco-friendly processes; sustainability also requires economic and social justification [1,2]. According to Yang , a bioprocess consists mainly of raw material, pretreatment, fermentation, downstream processing, and purification. Furthermore, the actual bioprocess is basicallydependentonthe substrateandorganismsusedandthe nature and applications of the final product . In a specific case, the development of a bioprocess for traditional industrial enzymes production has progressed significantly. Additionally, a large number of industrial processes in the areas of food processing, beverage production, animal feed, leather, textiles, detergents, biofuel, pulp paper, fats/oils, and organic synthesis utilize enzymes [4,5]. Moreover, developments in biotechnology are yielding new applications for enzymes. Deswal et al.  mentioned that enzymes play an important role in improving productivity and the cost of product formation in the bioprocess. Pectinase is an important enzyme that finds application in many food-processing industries and the microbial pectinases have been reported to account for 25% of the global food enzymes sales, and majority of them are fromfungal sources . The pectinase enzymes are a complex system of proteins, which include hydrolases, lyases, and oxidases, that play important roles in the degradation or modification of pectin substances and are favorable for particular processes, for example, in the extraction and clarification of fruit juices and inwine production [7,8].On the other hand, the production of pectinases is based on two bioprocesses, solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation, and originates from fungi, especially Aspergillus niger. These days, the production of pectinase is done industrially and thus can be considered a consolidated bioprocess. This chapter focuses on the development of a consolidated bioprocess for pectinase production, and updated information is presented on pectic substances, pectinase classification, pectinase assays, pectinase productionprocesses (rawmaterials, carbonsources,microorganisms, systems of production by solid-state and submerged fermentation, types of bioreactors), downstream processes, purification methods, and technoeconomic analysis of pectinase production.